Posts Tagged ‘Tennessee’

The Girls of Atomic City

Wednesday, February 18th, 2015 - posted by molly

The Untold Story of Women Who Helped Win World War II

By Denise Kiernan

Back when African Americans and Caucasian Americans couldn’t drink from the same water fountains and women were an anomaly in the workforce, a team of young women unknowingly helped enrich fuel for the world’s first atomic bomb in the hills of East Tennessee.

In this New York Times bestseller, author Denise Kiernan unravels the secrets of Oak Ridge, Tenn., the administrative headquarters of the Manhattan Project. The classified town, cloaked in secrecy, was practically built overnight to house 75,000 people by the end of World War II. Through dozens of conversations with surviving workers and residents, Kiernan reveals an astonishing history. — Review by Meredith Warfield

Read an interview with Denise Kiernan.

Looking on the bright side, states seek solar benefits

Monday, February 16th, 2015 - posted by Kimber

By Eliza Laubach

Photo courtesy O2 Energies

Photo courtesy O2 Energies

U.S. jobs grew nearly 20 times faster in the solar industry than the whole economy’s national average, reports The Solar Foundation. Recent findings by the research nonprofit project a slowdown by 2017, when a federal tax credit is scheduled to monumentally shrink. In the meantime, however, some southeastern states are catching the rays of the burgeoning industry with policies encouraging growth in both privately-owned and utility-scale solar.

The Georgia House of Representatives is expected to pass a bill that will remove a major economic barrier to rooftop solar for homes and businesses: the lack of financing options. State law currently outlaws third-party financing, when an investor buys a solar panel and sells the electricity to the host site at a reduced rate. The bill would allow this type of solar leasing, thus eliminating the need for up-front investment when a utility customer considers buying a solar panel.

Net metering, a model that allows a rooftop solar producer to sell excess electricity back into the grid, was bolstered in South Carolina this December. Utilities agreed to compensate rooftop solar producers at the same rate they charge for electricity. The agreement also restricts utilities from levying additional fees on rooftop solar owners.

A tactic utilities say offsets their cost of connecting solar panels to the grid, standard fees discourage potential rooftop solar installations. The Virginia Utilities Commission allowed Appalachian Power Company to levy such a fee last month. Homeowner associations across Virginia also tried to block rooftop solar installation, for aesthetic reasons, despite a bill passed last June banning them from doing so.

In North Carolina, the Utilities Commission renewed an order that requires state utilities to provide standard contracts when buying electricity from independent solar installations that generate five megawatts or less. Duke Energy and Dominion Power, meanwhile, had pushed to lower that threshold to installations 100 kilowatts or less. Solar energy advocates argued that negotiating custom contracts with Duke and Dominion would cripple independent solar development in the state. Duke owns only 4 percent of the solar energy in its portfolio, according to Charlotte’s National Public Radio syndicate.

Last month, The Tennessee Valley Authority announced that it will offer its version of a standard contract for up to 100 MW of renewable energy development. Projects between 50 kilowatts and 20 megawatts are eligible, and the contracts last for 20 years. While solar energy represents only 1 percent of nationwide electricity generation, the solar installation sector is already larger than familiar fossil fuels, such as coal mining, oil and natural gas, The Solar Foundation report found.

Sandhill Cranes: A Winter Spectacle in Southeast Tennessee

Friday, December 19th, 2014 - posted by allison

By Jenni Frankenberg Veal

Each winter, thousands of redheaded, long-legged sandhill cranes descend upon the mud flats and grain fields along the banks of the Tennessee River at the Hiwassee Wildlife Refuge in Southeast Tennessee.

This winter spectacle is inaugurated by the sandhill crane’s distinctive, rolling cries, which emerge from Tennessee skies in late October and early November and continue as the cranes overwinter in the region through February.


During winder migration, visitors to Hiwassee Wildlife Refuge can view thousands of Greater sandhill cranes. Photo courtesy Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.

The 6,000-acre Hiwassee Wildlife Refuge in rural Meigs County, Tenn., lures the cranes with its landscape of shallow water and food, offering acres of corn, millet and grain sorghum along with water and mudflats. The cranes roost in the shallow water, and probe for invertebrates in the mud.

Of all 15 crane species in the world, sandhill cranes are the most numerous and wide-ranging. Six subspecies of sandhill cranes have been identified since the early 1700s. Three of these subspecies — Lesser, Greater and Canadian — migrate and three subspecies — Mississippi, Florida and Cuban — do not.

The majority of Greater sandhill cranes breed across the Great Lakes region. In late summer and early fall, the birds leave their breeding grounds and congregate in large flocks before beginning their southward migration to traditional wintering grounds in southern Georgia and central Florida. In recent years, however, sandhill cranes have remained further north for the winter months in Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana and even in southern Ontario on Lake Erie.

Beginning in the early 1990s, sandhill cranes began stopping at the Hiwassee Wildlife Refuge on their way to and from their wintering grounds in Georgia and Florida. Today, as many as 12,000 spend the entire winter there.


The bird’s colorful markings are on display above. Photo courtesy Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.

“Sandhill cranes use the Tennessee River as a travel corridor,” says Kirk Miles, Region 3 wildlife manager with the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency. “We average, at least for the last five years, about 15,000 sandhill cranes using the Hiwassee Wildlife Refuge. However, more and more, the birds are using other fields along the Tennessee River as well.”

Greater sandhill cranes are the largest sub-species of crane, and average six to seven pounds and close to five feet tall with a wingspan stretching more than six feet wide. Their feathers are varying shades of gray, and the forehead and crown are covered with red skin. Adults have a white cheek patch.

Sandhill cranes mate for life — which can be two decades or more — and remain with their mates year-round. Cranes nest on the ground and often have two eggs, which the pair tends together.

Particularly during spring mating season, but also throughout the year, sandhill cranes will “dance,” which can include bowing, jumping, running, wing flapping and even throwing sticks and grass into the air.

The Greater sandhill crane rebounded from near extirpation in the 1930s when the population was estimated at 25 breeding pairs. Since that time, hunting regulations along with protection, restoration and management of wetlands have allowed the population to increase to more than 87,000 birds.

Today, hunting occurs on four of the six migratory populations of sandhill cranes in Canada, the U.S. and Mexico. Lesser sandhill cranes have been hunted since 1961 west of the Mississippi River, and Greater sandhill crane hunting opened in 2011 in Kentucky and 2013 in Tennessee. The season begins in late November and ends in January.

Jenni Frankenberg Veal is a Chattanooga-based writer and naturalist who enjoys promoting the region’s historical, cultural and natural assets through her work with the Southeast Tennessee Tourism Association. Visit her blog at

Be cool and keep fighting

Wednesday, November 5th, 2014 - posted by thom
After the tumultuous midterm elections, not that much has changed and our job in Washington, D.C., remains much the same.

After the tumultuous midterm elections, not that much has changed and our job in Washington, D.C., remains much the same.

For the next couple of weeks, you’ll have a hard time turning on the TV or going online without seeing reactions to the midterm elections. Most pundits will analyze what happened, and some will try to tell you what it means.

Here’s what it really means: maybe not that much.

To put things in historical perspective, let’s take a moment to look back at some very recent elections and their outcomes.

2008: Democrats take the White House and a supermajority in both the House and Senate! They proceed to pass climate legislation, stop mountaintop removal coal mining, usher in a new age of clean energy take a few moderate steps toward reducing the amount of permits issued for mountaintop removal coal mining.

2010: Republican wave! The GOP takes the House by a wide margin and nearly takes the Senate. They proceed to remove EPA’s ability to regulate carbon pollution and then expedite all mountaintop removal permits create a fuss while federal agencies continue to take moderate steps towards limiting coal pollution.

2012: Democrats keep the White House, and improve their numbers in both the House and Senate! They proceed to make permanent changes to coal mining and coal ash regulations while stopping global warming in its tracks make no headway on coal mining regulations, allow mountaintop removal mines to be permitted, and take only moderate steps on coal ash regulation and carbon emissions.

We don’t know what the future holds, but considering what happened yesterday there are a few things that we can be pretty sure of moving forward.

The politics of Virginia and Tennessee are not much different today than they were yesterday. No major incumbent lost their race, and the election’s outcomes gives us no reason to believe federal office holders from either state will change their behavior going forward. Appalachian Voices, for one, is happy to continue to work with members from both states and both parties.

West Virginia and Kentucky are still in Big Coal’s stranglehold. But like coal itself, the industry’s power is finite. We can’t say how soon the politics of coal will change in Central Appalachia, but we will continue to work with our allies in those states to change the conversation. For now, members of the two states’ delegations will continue to vote the way they have for years.

After 30 years as an advocate for coal miners and the coal industry alike, Rep. Nick Rahall lost to his Republican challenger, Evan Jenkins, in the race for West Virginia’s 3rd district. Rahall was the senior Democratic member and had a firm grasp on the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, which has jurisdiction over the Clean Water Act. His replacement in that role will likely be someone who opposes mountaintop removal coal mining. For that, we can be all be happy.

North Carolina’s Senate election was a bit of a surprise. Though, aside from Democrat Kay Hagan being replaced by Thom Tillis, the rest of delegation is unchanged.

Appalachian Voices has worked hard to build relationships with members of Congress and their staffs in both the House and the Senate. But we have known for a long time that getting comprehensive legislation through Congress is not a good short-term goal.

The White House, on the other hand, is armed with the science and has the legal authority and moral obligation to take on mountaintop removal, coal ash pollution, climate change and other threats. President Obama was never going to be able to rely on Congress to act on those issues. So from that perspective, nothing has changed.

It’s okay to be excited about a candidate you like winning an election. It’s okay to be bummed when a candidate you like loses. But it’s not okay to get so caught up in it all that you forget the big picture.

As we see it, the job before us has not changed. Our responsibilities to Appalachia, and yours, are the same today as they were yesterday and will be tomorrow.

We will keep fighting for a better future for Appalachia, and push every decision-maker, regardless of their political leanings, to stand with us. We will fight to end to mountaintop removal and for a just economic transition away from fossil fuels. We will fight because no one else is going to do it for us, and we will need you there by our side.

Getting Wild: The Tennessee Wilderness Proposal

Monday, October 13th, 2014 - posted by Barbara Musumarra

By Chris Samoray

My pulse thumps and I breathe harder. At a furious pace, I forge uphill quicker than the river beside me rolls down the mountainside. Grasses reclaiming the path swipe my ankles. Insects buzz near my open ears, which strain to hear the slightest sound — a crack in the trees or a rattle in the dirt. I’m alone and out of my element, but with each foot forward, concerns fade.

On this particular day, I’m tromping along the Brookshire Creek Trail, a 6.7-mile stretch in the Cherokee National Forest’s Upper Bald River Wilderness Study Area. Although the Upper Bald site hasn’t yet received wilderness designation, it certainly feels wild. My three stops to ask for directions and the five miles of winding, up-and-down dirt road to an unmarked trailhead located in the “east corner of the parking area” can attest to that. Or maybe I’m just in need of a lesson in confident map-reading.

The Bald River pours over an unnamed waterfall that shelters a shallow swimming hole in the Upper Bald Wilderness Study Area. The Upper Bald is one of six areas included in the Tennessee Wilderness Act, which would designate more wilderness in the Cherokee National Forest. Photo by Chris Samoray.

The Bald River pours over an unnamed waterfall that shelters a shallow swimming hole in the Upper Bald Wilderness Study Area. The Upper Bald is one of six areas included in the Tennessee Wilderness Act, which would designate more wilderness in the Cherokee National Forest. Photo by Chris Samoray.

Either way, I’m drawn to the Upper Bald by nature’s lure. And it’s this attraction that has hooked the Upper Bald as a candidate for official wilderness designation in the Tennessee Wilderness Act.

A Guide to the Wild

“A wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.”
- Wilderness Act of 1964

This year is the 50th anniversary of the Wilderness Act of 1964, and to date, the nation’s wilderness system includes 758 areas that cover nearly 110 million acres in all but six states. Wilderness areas are managed by the National Park Service, the U.S. Forest Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Bureau of Land Management, and are designated within existing federal public land. While wilderness areas are similar to national parks and forests, in many ways, they’re governed with more regulations.

Activities such as logging, mining and livestock grazing are allowed in national forests but are strictly prohibited in wilderness areas. And unlike national parks, once an area receives wilderness designation, new roads generally can’t be built.

“Wilderness designation is the ultimate level of protection for an area,” says Laura Hodge, who works for wilderness organizations Tennessee Wild and Wild South.

This doesn’t mean that wilderness areas are less open to the public though. While the main goal of a designated wilderness area is to keep it wild, visitation is encouraged. Traditional forms of outdoor activity such as hiking, camping, horseback riding, hunting and fishing as well as other non-mechanized recreation, such as rafting and skiing, are all welcomed in wilderness areas.

“There are no areas that keep people out,” says Hodge. “This is public land. People are welcome everywhere.”

What’s forbidden in wilderness areas is machinery. Even using weed eaters and chainsaws to maintain trails is off-limits — crosscut saws and other hand tools are the preferred methods of trail maintenance.

Ultimately, wilderness areas aim to provide a safe haven free of alteration from human impact. Each chunk of land set aside helps preserve clean air and water and wildlife habitat and, in doing so, ensures that future generations will have the opportunity to explore pristine places like the Brookshire Creek Trail.

Although Brookshire is 6.7 miles one way, my hike stretches only five miles, both ways. I plan to turn around at a cascading unnamed waterfall along the Bald River, about 2.5 miles in.

Almost immediately after setting out on the trail, the path runs into a small stream that empties into the nearby Bald River. Opting not to sacrifice dry boots, I dance over a few stones to reach the other side just a few feet away.

From there, the narrow trail follows the tumbling Bald River up the mountainside, occasionally recruiting me for more small river crossings. The uphill trudge is slight, and a heavy canopy shades the path. But I’m following water, and water means insects. In August, bugs ruled supreme.

The Tennessee Wilderness Act

The Tennessee Wilderness Act, first introduced in 2010 by Sen. Lamar Alexander (R-Tenn.) and later co-sponsored by Sen. Bob Corker (R-Tenn.), would add nearly 20,000 acres of the Cherokee National Forest as official designated wilderness. With slightly more than 9,000 acres, the Upper Bald River Wilderness Study Area is the largest of the six tracts included in the proposal, and the only one that does not currently have any designated wilderness.

Photo by Chris Samoray

A stream crosses the Brookshire Creek trailhead. Photo by Chris Samoray.

The Upper Bald is also adjacent to the Bald River Gorge Wilderness, and the two combined cover much of the Bald River Watershed. If passed, the Tennessee Wilderness Act would safeguard nearly the entire watershed, helping to protect four of the area’s threatened or endangered aquatic species, including the Citico darter and smoky madtom fish, as well as native brook trout. In the eastern United States, Hodge says, this extent of watershed protection is rare because of population density and land availability.

The bill would designate Tennessee’s first new wilderness in nearly 30 years, but the state’s three-decade lull hasn’t been for lack of trying.

In the past five years, the Tennessee Wilderness Act was introduced two other times, and despite a survey given by Tennessee Wild showing broad support, the bill was thwarted by an adjourning Congress on both occasions. Similar to previous introductions, the 2013 introduction awaits a floor vote.

In the meantime, people appear eager to satiate their outdoor appetite. According to the Outdoor Industry Association, Americans currently spend $646 billion on outdoor recreation annually, and the industry fuels 6.1 million American livelihoods. In Tennessee, outdoor recreation provides 83,000 jobs and generates $8.2 billion in consumer spending. In neighboring North Carolina, the numbers are more than double at 192,000 and $19.2 billion. Virginia, South Carolina and Georgia closely follow in North Carolina’s footsteps.

“Wilderness does not prevent jobs, it creates jobs, particularly in southern Appalachia,” Hodge says. “Think of the visitors who go to the Smokies. It shows the public has an interest. If we don’t protect these areas, they’ll be gone.”

Communities bordering proposed wilderness areas of the Tennessee Wilderness Act seem to support outdoor recreation, too. Tellico Plains, which is near the Upper Bald area in Tennessee, recently rebranded itself “The Little Town with the Big Back Yard,” and in August, the mountainside community earned “Trail Town” recognition from the Benton MacKaye Trail Association and the Southeastern Foot Trails Coalition.

A Wilder World

Back on the Brookshire Trail, the charm of falling water scatters insects and breaks my daydream. Down a steep embankment to the left is the unnamed waterfall.

I scramble down a small water runoff path and lose the boots and socks. Stepping carefully to the river’s center, I aim to lounge on moss-covered rocks bathed in river mist and tree shadows for an afternoon picnic. A chilly plunge into the swimming hole at the base of the waterfall washes down my meal.

Just beyond the waterfall, the trail meets the lower waters of Brookshire Creek and then joins with the Benton MacKaye Trail, only deviating from MacKaye for a short distance when Brookshire goes up to its terminus at Beaverdam Bald, a small open area at 4,260 feet with mountainous views into North Carolina.

If the Tennessee Wilderness Act passes, the amount of wilderness in the Cherokee National Forest will increase from 66,000 acres to more than 80,000 acres, about 12 percent of the forest. But Hodge notes that this lingers below the national average of 14 percent. Still, the additional acreage would provide increased protection for wildlife in a region that’s among the country’s most biodiverse. And not only would nature reap the benefits, but so too would we.

Nature gives us a chance to revisit our roots, and by the time I begin my return trek, I feel rooted in the forest. I walk slowly, allowing the running water and fresh air to recharge my being for just a little longer. Without the aid of modern tools though, I’ve lost the ability to survive here for long. I’m a visitor only, and must return to civilization. But for a brief moment, I’m welcomed in a prehistoric home: the wild.

Energy Savings Advances in Tennessee and North Carolina

Monday, October 13th, 2014 - posted by Barbara Musumarra

Our Energy Savings for Appalachia campaign has made great strides since our kickoff 18 months ago, but we’re only just getting started!

This September in Tennessee, Appalachian Voices participated in an energy efficiency “retreat” that brought the Tennessee Electric Cooperative Association and six of its member cooperatives together with a number of state agencies and numerous experts in energy efficiency finance. The purpose was to begin designing a statewide on-bill energy efficiency finance program that will help low-income residents reduce their electricity bills. Appalachian Voices not only helped make the retreat happen, we are also playing a key role in determining how the program will be funded and implemented.

While we are energized by Tennessee’s progress, North Carolina’s electric co-ops have yet to commit to providing energy efficiency finance options. Because of this, on October 9 we launched a new campaign focused on Blue Ridge Electric Membership Corp. in the High Country of western North Carolina. Our goal is to generate strong member support to encourage the electric co-op to develop an on-bill energy efficiency financing program, one that primarily helps low-income households.

The poverty rate among Blue Ridge Electric members is 23%, meaning that many households in the High Country struggle to pay their electricity bills each winter. As one of North Carolina’s largest electric co-ops, however, Blue Ridge Electric should be offering financial support that helps reduce their members’ electricity bills. Six other co-ops in North Carolina offer on-bill finance options, and it is time that Blue Ridge Electric step up and do the same. To support the campaign, we are also launching a High Country Home Energy Makeover contest. See page 6 for more information.

To learn more or get involved, call (828) 262-1500 or email Rory McIlmoil at

Appalachian Voices Hosts Wild & Scenic Film Festival in Knoxville

Monday, October 13th, 2014 - posted by Barbara Musumarra


Join us on Thursday, Oct. 30 at the Bijou Theater in Knoxville, Tenn., for a night of exciting short films from one of the nation’s premiere environmental and adventure film festivals. This special selection of award-winning films about nature, community activism, adventure and conservation are guaranteed to inspire and ignite the audience to protect our wildlife and natural places.

Thanks to our sponsors, Three Rivers Market and Mast General Store, proceeds will go directly to support the work of Appalachian Voices. The show starts at 7 p.m. and tickets are $10 in advance and at the door. The event also includes raffles, membership specials and giveaways. For ticket info and the film lineup, visit

Energy efficiency at the forefront of cooperative principles in Tennessee

Wednesday, September 17th, 2014 - posted by rory
Frank Rapley, General Manager of TVA's Energy Efficiency Programs, presents on the new EE programs that TVA will be offering in 2015. Photo credit: Tennessee Electric Cooperative Association.

Frank Rapley, General Manager of TVA’s Energy Efficiency Programs, presents on the new EE programs that TVA will be offering in 2015. Photo credit: Tennessee Electric Cooperative Association.

Rural electric cooperatives, which serve millions of families across Appalachia, operate on seven principles, the most important of which (at least to us) is principle number seven: “Concern for Community.”

The seventh principle commits electric co-ops to “the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.” As we described in a blog series on the need for and benefits on “on-bill” financing programs supporting home energy improvements in Appalachia, the sustainable development of the Appalachian region relies on the ability of residents to invest in their communities. But first and foremost, they must be able to afford their electric bills. The clear first step to achieving this vision is expanding energy efficiency, and this is something that Tennessee’s electric cooperatives have taken to heart.

On September 5, thanks to a generous grant from the National Governor’s Association (NGA), the Tennessee Electric Cooperative Association (TECA), in partnership with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), sponsored a statewide energy efficiency “retreat.” The goal of the day-long policy retreat was to hash through the details of what will hopefully become a statewide program to finance home energy efficiency improvements, especially for low-income residents. Such programs have proven to reduce home energy costs substantially, and are primarily intended to help families that can’t afford to pay for the upfront cost of needed improvements. Below is a testimonial from one family that participated in South Carolina’s pilot on-bill financing program known as “Help My House.”

The retreat featured a number of experts in energy efficiency finance and program design as well as co-op and government administration, including numerous representatives from federal organizations and government agencies, Tennessee state government agencies and various experts and clean energy advocates such as Appalachian Voices and a handful of our partner organizations.

Most importantly, the retreat was attended by six of Tennessee’s rural electric cooperatives. Included among them was Appalachian Electric, which has proven to be a statewide leader in expanding energy efficiency opportunities not only for their own members, but for all of Tennessee’s rural co-op members. Unfortunately, of the six co-ops that participated in the retreat only two co-ops were from the Appalachian region, although we were told by TECA that a handful of others couldn’t attend but were interested in participating in the process. We hope that more co-ops with service territories in East Tennessee will sign on to the process, because as the energy cost maps we generated earlier this year show, members of Appalachian co-ops are most in need of support for reducing their electric bills.

The efforts of Appalachian Voices’ staff, through concerted outreach to Tennessee’s Appalachian electric co-ops and local stakeholders, played a key part in making the energy efficiency retreat happen, and as a result we were invited to participate as an expert stakeholder. We are extremely encouraged by the outstanding leadership that NGA, TECA, TDEC and Appalachian Electric are showing, and we admire their dedication to helping the families who need it most.

The prospect of a statewide on-bill financing program in Tennessee is exciting, and we remain committed to doing everything we can to seeing it through. Further, we appreciate everything you do to support our work. If you live in western North Carolina, get in touch, because we have a lot going on in your neighborhood too!

Exploring Mountain Bogs

Sunday, August 10th, 2014 - posted by Jack Rooney

By Amber Ellis

If you take one of The Nature Conservancy’s monthly hikes through Bluff Mountain Preserve in Ashe County, N.C., you’ll experience a rare mountain fen firsthand. Walking along the trail, the trees suddenly give way to a clearing closely resembling a meadow of grasses and flowers. Meadows are rarely found at 4,500 feet elevation, however, and do not typically swallow your boots in mud.

Wetlands such as bogs and fens are some of the rarest natural communities across central and southern Appalachia. Bogs are defined by their nutrient-poor, acidic and saturated soil, and are usually found in depressions or low-lying areas filled by precipitation. Mosses and shrubs thrive while mature trees are rare.

In Ashe County, N.C., the oak forests of Bluff Mountain give way to a rare mountain fen. Photographer Kim Hadley, who captured this image, began volunteering with The Nature Conservancy to help care for the area in 2004.

In Ashe County, N.C., the oak forests of Bluff Mountain give way to a rare mountain fen. Photographer Kim Hadley, who captured this image, began volunteering with The Nature Conservancy to help care for the area in 2004.

A fen is essentially a bog fed by groundwater. This makes them slightly less acidic, more nutrient-rich and home to a wider variety of grasses than bogs, accounting for the characteristic meadow-like look of fens.

Functionally, however, fens and bogs are nearly identical. Because of this similarity, high-elevation, isolated wetlands are often collectively referred to as “bogs.”

Although mountain bogs represent less than one percent of the southern Appalachian landscape, they are highly functional pockets of immense ecological and practical importance. Not only are the bogs biodiversity hotspots for rare and specially adapted species such as the mountain sweet pitcher plant and the Carolina northern flying squirrel, they also provide natural water-level controls for surrounding communities. Bogs act as buffers in times of both drought and flood, replenishing springs during dry spells and catching overflow during heavy rain.

This consistent water supply attracts critters such as the water shrew, a small mammal whose hairy hind feet allow it to run or glide across the water without getting stuck in the mud. Mountain bogs are also habitats to many game species as well as species of conservation concern. This means wildlife such as the wood duck and ruffed grouse live alongside rare plants and amphibians such as bunched arrowhead and numerous salamander species.

In North Carolina, the smallness and isolation of these mountain bogs is of particular importance in light of recently proposed wetland regulation updates from the state legislature. Although wetlands are generally protected under the federal Clean Water Act, regulation of isolated wetlands is left up to the state. The current draft legislation would increase the size required for a wetland area to trigger environmental protection. Given that mountain bogs are typically small, the proposed regulations would make them particularly vulnerable to development.

The importance of bogs has not gone unnoticed, however, and the proposed legislation makes conservation efforts all the more relevant. In 2012, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began work on the Mountain Bogs National Wildlife Refuge to protect, restore and manage the unique wildlife habitats. Promoting these goals will involve connecting people to nature and developing landscape-level conservation and conservation partnerships. The proposed refuge would ultimately include as many as 23,000 acres spread across thirty sites in western North Carolina and East Tennessee.

According to Gary Peeples, the man spearheading the proposal from the Fish and Wildlife Service office in Asheville, N.C., the refuge is a chance to “make a big step forward when it comes to bog conservation … especially in the conservation of those federally threatened and endangered plants and animals.”

Conservation areas for the project include the bog itself, the surrounding upland area, and when applicable, an area upstream. The proposal has already received federal approval and widespread support from local nonprofits and private landowners, but, Peeples says, “the biggest limiting factor right now is money to purchase land.”

A volunteer with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service monitors the population health of the elusive and endangered Appalachian mountain bog turtle. Photo courtesy of Gary Peeples of USFWS

A volunteer with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service monitors the population health of the elusive and endangered Appalachian mountain bog turtle. Photo courtesy of Gary Peeples of USFWS

This means the project will happen in pieces, with land parcels being bought as funding is approved by the federal Land and Water Conservation Fund. Peeples points out, though, that “the bigger picture here is the conservation of the bogs,” and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service also works with landowners who wish to manage and conserve their privately owned bogs apart from the National Wildlife Refuge.

Once acquired wetlands in the refuge are stable enough to allow public access, recreational activities such as hunting, birdwatching and wildlife photography will take priority. The goal is to ensure the health and survival of bog ecosystems for the sake of their inhabitants as well as for curious naturalists, eager to slog through the mud and discover one of the regions’ rarest gems.

Endangered Inhabitants of the Mountain Bogs

Bog Turtle


The mountain bogs of Southern Appalachia are one of the bog turtle’s few remaining homes. As North America’s tiniest turtles, they are prized in the pet world for their small size and distinctive coloring — particularly the bright orange patches on either side of their head.

Measuring only 3 – 4.5 inches long, bog turtles feed mainly on seeds, insect larvae, beetles and millipedes and are much more concerned with avoiding predators than being one. Though bog turtles have multiple natural predators, human impact through poaching and habitat loss are responsible for their status as a critically endangered species.

Rock Gnome Lichen


High in the fog of lofty elevations, deep in the mists of river gorges, or nestled in the dampness of mountains — these are some of the only bogs are the only places one can find the rock gnome lichen, a fungus unique to Southern Appalachia. Clustering on vertical rock faces, the blue-gray lichen gets its nutrients from water and sunlight and reproduces asexually at a very slow rate. Trampling and soil erosion from hikers and rock-climbers contribute to the rock gnome lichen’s endangered status. Habitat destruction due to invasive insects killing trees that shade the lichen is also a major cause.

Mountain Sweet Pitcher Plant


Found in only a few counties along the western North Carolina/ South Carolina border, the endangered Mountain Sweet Pitcher Plant is specifically adapted to the low-nutrient environment of mountain bogs. Like most plants, the Mountain Sweet has photosynthetic leaves that convert the sun’s energy into usable sugars. However, while most plants use their roots to gather additional nutrients from surrounding soil, a bog offers few freebies, so the Mountain Sweet opts for a more lively food source. Small, nectar-seeking insects are lured into the plant’s pitcher organ, an upright, leafy tube lined with hairs, and greeted with a bath of enzyme-rich digestive fluids that break down their bodies into the nutrients the plant needs. North Carolina has already claimed the Venus Fly Trap as the state’s official carnivorous plant, but the Mountain Sweet Pitcher Plant stands out as a regional treasure.

Bored to Death

Sunday, August 10th, 2014 - posted by Jack Rooney

By Amber Ellis

Originally from eastern Russia and northeastern Asia, the emerald ash borer found its way to southeastern Michigan through infested cargo ships in 2002 and quickly became North America’s most destructive forest pest. Since then, the invasive beetle has plagued forests in 22 states, including most of Appalachia and, as of June, five more counties in East Tennessee.

The pest’s larvae bores under an ash tree’s bark, destroying the nutrient and water transport systems and starving the canopy until the entire tree dies. To contain the spread of the emerald ash borer and other invasive pests, experts urge residents and visitors to avoid transporting firewood of any kind.